Start Prondating com

Prondating com

They have no manure, except what is required for the potato-crop, and no mo- ney to buy additional stock. Rait, a practical Scotch farmer, has culti- vated seven hundred acres in the King's County in the most approved manner for twenty years^i H(^ SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT.

Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. I have only been able to devote a few days to the latter branch of the subject, — and although the unfortunate condition of our4fapr in Ireland has occupied much of my time and thoughts for some years, I am sensible that it w^ld require «,„re Lurate knowledge, stronger p^ers of rea- soning, and more talents for writing also, than I can claim, to treat such a subject, in so short a iimcy in a manner to be really worthy of the atten- tion of the public. It may be useful, therefore, to point out the in- surmountable difficulties which at present stand in the way of an immediate alteration of that kind, and the impossibility of augmenting the size of farms upon any large or general scale, until the ex- isting race of farmers and labourers shall have been first taught, that there exists a far^ better system of cultivation than that already in use ; and until ^something worthy of being called agricultural ca- pital is created, by the introduction of a more re- munerating course of tillage. 1833 s, d, 52 11 541,742 1,059,588 844,201 1834 46 2 462,229 1,110,464 779,504 1835 39 4 340,535 1,124,344 661,776 Yet, strange to say, this fall in price (from 52^. Nevertheless, some well-informed mem- bers f seem to have adopted the idea very strongly, and directly imply in the form of their question, not only that the fall in the price of wheat in the Buck- * Agricul. The Fanning Society, which was set on foot about the time of the Union, met with no better success in the agricultural part of its labours.

Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world. The following pages, therefore, are made public solely in the hop S[jp£^ exciting useful, practical dis- •cussion among those whose ability to do justice to the question is far greater than mine. Int Toductioii.^Popular Eironi as to the Effect of the Import of Irish Grain on English Prices ; — as to the Fertility of the Soil^ and the Profits derivable by the Farmer from Low Wages Page 1 11. But, before entering upon the most practicable method of improving the present state of things in Ireland, let us first consider what is the real amount of the influence which her exports at pre- sent exert upon the price of grain in England. notwithstanding the striking diminution of import which had occurred. to 89*.) was erroneously attributed by most of the farmer- witnesses in 1836, to the introduction of wheat from Ireland, — ^though this import had itself actually fallen with the price, from 800,000 quar- ters to 600,000 quarters. The gentlemen who conducted it were apparently im- bued with the nsitional prejudice, which seems to consider tillage as a sort of necessary evil, which only admits of palliatives ; and they directed all their real Energy to the improvement of the stock of the graziers, in which they had much success.

Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. The anomalies which are said to exist there are numerous; but when we hear her constantly described as an *' Agricultural coun- try/ — when we know that an unusually large B 2 CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE proportion of her population subsists wholly by agriculture, — and when we find nevertheless that tillage has hitherto obtained less consideration in Ireland^ than in any other portion of the king- dom^ — we must surely admit that this indifference forms one of the most striking anomalies which can be noticed. C 18 SKETCH OF THE PROGRESS it may appear, both in point of size and quality, is still his only resource against starvation, and is really prized with the same sort of tenderness that a hungry labourer prizes his mid-day meal. He advocates a UDiosii^ith' England, free traide, relaxation of the penal laws a^^st the Catho Ucs, composition of tithe, improvement in agriculture, and a general poor law.

Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians. — Evils of Po- verty should be made available to good purposes . Inquiry as to the Facility of obtaining Profitable Employment for the able-bodied. Sketch of the Conacre System in other parts of the Country, and the Advantages which must be derived from it before it can be extinguished • • ' 105 IV. — Remarks on the Existing Practice of Industrial Settlement. — The Rate to act as a Stimulus for Profitable Employment of Inde- pendent Labour. Want of Roads and Want of Money, how to be supplied 164 vin. The day is probably not far dis- tant when it will be removed. If we pass over a century of civil wars and con- fiscations, and come down to the reign of George II, we find Dean Swiff;, in his political papers, still making the same complaint in 1728, He says, that investments in land* were eagerly sought for, but thatf *^ Gentlemen, instead of consulting •^ the ease of their tenants, or cultivating their lands, ^^ were worrying one another upon points of Whig *' and Tory, of High Church and Low Church, which '^ no more concerned them than the famous contro- versy of strops for razors ; while agriculture i DOS wholly discouraged, and consequently half the farm- *^ ers, labourers, and . Moreover^ he is also a patrotf of the workhouse system, — though part of his plan con- siflls of a ctirious device for forcing occupation on the sturdy pauper, which we can by no means recommend in any of the improved unions ; — he suggests that a pump-room should be built for them, tried to call the attention of the public to similar plans for bribing sundry honest English farmers into the country at the rate of 300/.

Where there is little or no timber on an estate, (as in Ireland ^nd Scotland,) it will seldom suit landlords to undertake the repair of buildingsy whatever English gentlemen may suppose : but a proper superintendence they are bound to organize. Blacker fodnd, not only that farms were small, but that however limited in size, the farmer's capital was still smaller in proportion ; or in other words,, that however small the farm might be with re-» ference to extent, it was usually too large with re- ference to capital.

His object, therefore, is to show each individual tenant how he can enter little by little upon an entirely new course of cropping ; how he may find additional employment and profit within the narrow limits of his farm, and thereby create additional capital.

It was supported by a grant of public money, which has been discontinued, and the Society no^^ longer exists. Blacker of Armagh to advocate the cause of the tillage- farmers with more spirit, system, and success than has yet been seen.

The little pamphlet which he published some five or six years ago, in explanation of his views, has done incalculable good.

Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. — Popular Errors as to the Effect of the Import of Irish Grain on English Prices ; as to the Fertility of the Soilf and the Profits derivable by the Farmer^ from Low Wages. 19 '' managed by one or two herdsmen, and their boys-^ ^' whereby the master'^grazier seized to himself th Jb '^ live Uhoddof Br' hundred people." Primate Boulter eo^ea^aured about the same time to introdox^ a^ law 'for the increase of tillage, but without success. Ai^thur Dobbs,^ in his Essay on the Trade df Ireland, (1727.) talks also of '' Geiw '* tlemen receiving or dismissing whole v Ulages of na- - tiye Irish at once ; and this is done just as gentleu ^' men incline to break up their lands and improve *' them by tillage, or as they lay them down under ^ grass, aisd* enlairgo their sheep-walks and grazing *' farms/' But although the gentry, when taken individu- ally, were most of them inattentive to the proper cultivation of their estaiies; ihey could not conceal fircmk themselvea the national inconvenience which this neglect occasioned.

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the publisher to a library and finally to you. At a moment when so much increased interest is expressed in the state of Ireland; when the influence which she exercises on the councils and on the economical condition of the people of Great Britain is the theme of daily argument ; and when the export of her produce is supposed to have such an exaggerated effect on the price of grain in the English markets, — ^it may perhaps be interesting to inquire what is in reality the present condition of Agriculture in Ireland^ what are the causes that have contributed to its comparative inferiority, and what will be the most probable and practical sources of its improvement. Ireland at that time did not grow com enough for her own consumption, * Ptig6 7* Tbts gentlemd D, who was a member of the Irifh Parliament^ and afterwards governor of Carolina, would find himi^elf quite at home still upon Irish politics^ if he wtis sittmg in the House of Commons of the present day ; we have got no- thing newer than his suggestions since his time.

Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. I am aware also, that the division of the subject iinder two completely separate heads may \}e in- convenient to the reader ; but I have not had time to alter the original and accidental arrangement, as the object proposed by this publication would be defeated bv delay. The English farmer commonly asserts that the Irish can afibrd to undersell him in his own mar- ket, in consequence of the superior fertility of the Irish soil, the absence of local charges upon the land, and the proverbially low price of labour in that country. So that the increased home growth in 1835 not only filled up the deficiency, for which resort had been so largely made to foreign grain previous to 1831^ but also supplied the vast increase of con- sumption which occurred with the falling price : and it is obvious, that the increase of Irish grain be- tween 18 (only 104^256 quarters) must have had but a trifling share in satisfying this de- mand ; so that the increased home growth of Great Britain, on a comparison of the above years, must have been at least three times as great as the gross import from Ireland: — therefore, it can have exer- cised but an insignificant effect on the extraordinary fluctuations which we observe in the English market. The fact is, that the Irish tillage-farmers suffered, during the depression of prices, just as much as the English ; and, being poor, they were obliged to ap- ply the only remedy much more quickly than their richer neighbours, and, when they found the price falling, they diminished the growth of wheat. Saunders, the great Liverpool corn-merchant,* and has not es- caped the attention of the Irish Assistant Poor In- quiry Commissioners, who notice in all the richer * House of Commons' Agricultural Committee, 1 836. 8 EFFECT OF THE IMPORT OF distripts, the quantity of land which had been lately thrown out of tillage, and the distress which this course had occasioned to the labouring classes. It would be wrong to undervalue the great amount of national gain which has been achieved in this way.